As Thailand becomes more industrialized, greater amounts of chemicals are being used and released into the environment. Thus, with technological advancements, humans are increasingly being exposed to environmental toxicants. Moreover, many chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancer and cardiovascular diseases are found to be associated with exposure to environmental toxicants. Metals (i.e. arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and pesticides (i.e.  chlorpyrifos, atrazine, 2, 4-D, paraquat and glyphosate) are the two groups of chemicals that we are interested in. Special attention is given to alterations of neuronal cholinergic and non-neuronal cholinergic receptors and their signaling pathways leading to the altered physiological responses in chronic diseases. In addition, the cross talks between neuronal and immunological systems have been investigated. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of the toxic effects of these chemicals may potentially lead to treatment and prevention of the harmful effects of these toxicants.
          Environmental pollutants, metals, pesticides, and industrial chemicals, as risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), i.e. cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases, have been focused. Mechanisms of action of these environmental risk factors are studied focusing on various signaling pathways, both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. Intercention or prevention of these NCDs will be studied using bioactive compounds from traditional herbal drugs or functional foods.